top of page


During jumping, to maximise the effectiveness of the calf and achilles, a proximal-to-distal sequencing should occur, with hip extension followed by knee extension and finally followed by ankle plantar flexion. During a squat jump, gastrocnemius and soleus exhibit stretch and recoil of their series elastic tissues in the catapult-like manner that has been associated with power amplification. Therefore, increasing proximal joint moments early in the jump motion facilitates plantar flexor stretch and stretch-shortening cycle ability.

Jumping performance is enhanced when ankle rotation, peak ankle moment and peak ankle power occur late during propulsion. Therefore, it may be most beneficial if the joint that extends last is driven by elastic recoil of a tendon (ankle).

Bobbert, M. F. (2001). Dependence of human squat jump performance on the series elastic compliance of the triceps surae: a simulation study. J. Exp. Biol. 204, 533-542.

Bobbert, M.F., Van Soest, A.J. (2001). Why Do People Jump the Way They Do? Exercise and Sport Science Reviews. 19, 95-102

Farris, D.J., Lichtwark, G.A., Brown, N.A., Cresswel, A.G. (2016). The role of human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon interaction and architecture in maximal vertical jumping examined in vivo.

Journal of Experimental Biology, 219, 528 - 534.


bottom of page